The scientists have recently discovered elementary thinking in animals. How exactly do animals “think?” Are all the animals capable of such thinking? Who is the “smartest” of them all? What is the intermediate language people and animals use to learn to understand each other?

Zoya Aleksandrovna Zorina, Dr. Sc. in Biology, Head of the Laboratory for Behavior Physiology and Genetics of the Department of Higher Nervous Activity of the Faculty of Biology of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University

Tatyana Vladimirovna Chernigovskaya, Neurolinguist, Dr. Sc. in Biology and Philology, Professor, Saint Petersburg State University.