In 1955, a group of scientists from the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Engineering were charged with a task to develop an electron accelerator producing a powerful short-time flash of penetrating gamma radiation. According to one of the designers, the degree of secrecy as to the customer’s name was such that could be hardly imagined. The documents were sent from such institutions, as Volga Office; Design Bureau – 11; Facility No.550; Center-300, Moscow; Arzamas-75. The only thing in common that eleven of them had was mysterious name of Khariton. Later, it turned out that Khariton was a surname. Yuli Khariton got his doctoral degree at the Cavendish Laboratory under the guidance of Ernest Rutherford and James Chadwick, the one who discovered neuron on February 27, 1932. Khariton was dealing with explosions for many years, and was the first one in the world to make calculations for uranium fission chain reaction together with Zeldovich. He was the head theoretician of Soviet atomic bomb project, as well as developed and tested thermonuclear bomb with Sakharov and Zeldovich. The scientist had been at the head of Arzamas-15 Research Center for 50 years – from 1946 until his death – upholding the necessity of state support for fundamental science until last. In his point of view, it was an essential condition of his country remaining a great power. Among his colleagues, term yubism was in extensive use. Derived from Khariton’s initials (Yuli Borisovich), this notion meant preciseness in everything, drawing documents in the first turn, and meticulousness in solving unclear problems – in a word, the features that the outstanding scientist was famous for.
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