В 1776 году вышла книга Адама Смита «Исследование о природе и причинах богатства народов»

The wealth of nations, Adam Smith believed, would result from free economy. It is for that reason that he is considered today the founding father of classic liberal economic theory. Adam Smith explained the mechanism of free market. Since that time this theory has been the ABC of economic education. Everyone who is familiar with economics has heard about the invisible hand of the market. “Three conditions are required,” Adam Smith wrote, “to raise the state from barbarity to the highest degree of prosperity: first, peace inwards and outwards, second, tolerance in ruling the state, and, third, reasonable taxation. The natural order of things will do all the rest.” Here is one more indisputable idea by him: “Great nations never get poor due to wastefulness and carelessness of individuals, yet they often get poor due to the wastefulness and carelessness of state power.”