On January 12, under the Julian calendar (i.e., just on January 23 under the Gregorian calendar), 1755, Elizaveta Petrovna signed a decree on Moscow University establishment. The idea of creating a university in Moscow for noblemen and commoners was suggested by Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. His effort was fruitful: full chamberlain Ivan Shuvalov developed a project and placed it under the imperial pen on the day of his mother Tatyana’s name-day. According to Lomonosov and Shuvalov’s plans, the university was supposed to have 10 professors and three faculties: philosophy, medicine and law. It was ordered to ensure teaching in Russian or Latin, and two gymnasiums were simultaneously established to train students: for noblemen and commoners. By the way, the gymnasiums were the first institutions to open – it happened in April of the same year. The Philosophy Faculty was opened in the first place. The remaining ones were launched in three years. In that 18th century, the difference between the new and the old style was 11 days, while in our 20th century it equals 13 days. Thus, now we celebrate the day of Holy Martyr Tatiana on January 25 under the Gregorian calendar, and the birthday of Moscow State University is two days earlier.
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