In the same week that Michelangelo died, another titan of thought – Galileo Galilei – was born. The list of what he had one for science is endless: he invented thermometer, discovered four Jupiter’s satellites and mountains on the Moon, laid the basis for modern mechanics. They say that porters hired by him dragged a cannonball weighing 100 kg to the Tower of Pisa, while he carried a culverin ball weighing half a pound there. Having dropped both balls from the tower and counted the time by his pulse, he proved that acceleration of free fall does not depend upon the body mass. Galilei paved the way for dynamics, worked in the field of probability theory, discovered inertia law, the law of downward motion, the one of composition of motions, the law of pendulum swing fixed period. He did not just propagate the ideas by Kopernik, but wrote Dialogue Concerning the Two World Systems (the ones of Ptolemeus and Kopernik) in Italian language, which was intelligible for common people. The church could not tolerate this, and Galilei was brought before the Inquisition Court. On June 22, 1633, Galileo Galilei denounced his teaching standing on the knees. It happened at the Santa Minerva Convent in the presence of all members of jury after the trial that lasted two months. This decision was quite reasonable. According to mathematician David Hilbert, only idiots believe that science demands sacrifices. It is religion that demands sacrifices, while the research findings will be recognized with time. That is exactly how it happened. Moreover, the church later recognized having been wrong. The mistake made by Pope Urbanus VIII who condemned Galilei was corrected by John-Paul II. He ordered to investigate into this case, and Vatican came to the final conclusion in 1992 that the sentence was wrong. During his last years, Galilei was living under the surveillance of Inquisition and died on the same year than Newton was born. It looked as if he passed the baton to the British scientist.
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What saints did the conquistadors pray to and why did they decide to conquer Mexico? What was the ethnic, regional, and age composition of the Conquista?