The court physician of the Holy Roman Emperors Charles the Fifth and Philip the Second and the younger contemporary of Paracelsus is considered the founder of scientific anatomy. And it is quite justified – he was one of the first to study the human body through conducting autopsies, and in 1543 he published his main work On the Fabric of the Human Body. In it, Vesalius corrected more than two hundred errors of the ancient physician Galen. After all, when describing the human structure, Galen relied on dissecting apes – in Galen's time, dissecting human corpses was considered blasphemy. Vesalius was persecuted by the church as well: after all, he blasphemously claimed that men and women have the same number of ribs. By the way, Vesalius also paid for undermining Galen's influence: he was expelled from Padua, where he was a university professor. Andreas Vesalius found shelter with the Spanish king, but the long arms of the Spanish Inquisition found him there. Vesalius was falsely accused of dissecting a living person and sentenced to death. Philip II interceded for his court surgeon, and the execution was replaced by a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. But, as it turned out, there was no escape from fate: on the way back, a shipwreck happened, and the founder of scientific anatomy was thrown out on the island of Zakynthos, where he died.
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