The fortress on the Baltic shore was founded in 1255 by knights of the Teutonic Order that came there during their crusade with an intention to clear the land from Prussian pagan population. They gave the town the name of Königsberg, which means “king’s mountain,” after King Ottokar II of Bohemia who organized the crusade. The town lived almost 700 years under its royal name, most of that time as part of Prussia. During the Seven Years' War it was conquered by Russians, and its resident Immanuel Kant, the great philosopher, became Russian citizen for a short time. During the Potsdam Conference, organized by countries that had won in World War II, Königsberg and a part of Eastern Prussia passed to the Soviet Union. And just at that moment, the Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin died. So, the town was given the name of Kaliningrad, becoming the second Russian town bearing that name. Now, it is the only Kaliningrad in the country, as the Kaliningrad near Moscow was renamed to become Korolyov.
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