25 апреля 1961 года американский изобретатель Роберт Нойс получил патент на кремниевую интегральную схему

A virtually identical model was invented by Jack Kilby. He too solved the issue of how to accommodate maximum components in minimum footprint and managed to combine transistors, resistors, capacitors and everything else that is necessary for electronics into one monolithic crystal of semiconductor. But Kilby used germanium. A battle between Kilby and Noyce ensued but the two were able to come to terms and join their efforts later.