An outstanding scientist, member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, professor, ophthalmic surgeon, founding father of the Eye Microsurgery IRTC, public figure, and organizer – all that is about Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov. Today, on August 8th, he would have turned 94. The future ophthalmologist surgeon was born in 1927 to a military man’s family. After school he entered Yerevan preparatory artillery school and later, he entered Rostov Medical Institute. After successfully graduating from the institute in 1958 and defending his doctor's thesis he worked as a doctor in a local hospital of Veshenskaya village (Rostov Region) and Lysva city (Perm Region). He headed the Clinical Department at the Cheboksary branch of the Helmholtz State Institute of Eye Diseases.
In 1960, Svyatoslav Fyodorov created an artificial lens and performed an experimental implant operation. However, because of his disagreement with the Cheboksary branch director, he was forced to leave the institute, and his research was declared unscientific. Nevertheless, due to the public opinion regarding the successful results of implant surgeries with artificial lens, he managed to regain his good name and continued working at the institute. Starting from 1961, Svyatoslav Nikolayevich became the head of the Department of Eye Diseases at Arkhangelsk Medical University (now – Northern State Medical University). He worked there until 1967.
While working in Moscow since 1974, Svyatoslav Fyodorov began to perform operations for the treatment and correction of myopia by making anterior dosed incisions on the cornea according to his own original methodology.
The laboratory he headed was given a free status from the institute and became the Moscow Research Laboratory of Experimental and Clinical Eye Surgery of the RSFSR Ministry of Healthcare. Fyodorov's technique became widely used in the clinic, its branches, and even abroad. The total number of operations performed “according to Fyodorov's method” worldwide is estimated at 3 million.
Later, the Institute of Eye Microsurgery was established on the basis of his laboratory. Svyatoslav Nikolayevich became its director, and implemented such a process called “medical surgical conveyor belt.” Several surgeons were conducting surgeries in it. Each of them worked strictly in a certain part of the operation. Yet, the main stage of the operation rested on the shoulders of the most experienced surgeon. Thanks to Svyatoslav Fyodorov's efforts, mobile operating rooms based on buses appeared.
In April 1986, an Interdepartmental Scientific and Technical Complex Eye Microsurgery was formed based on the Institute of Eye Microsurgery. Later, more branches of the ISTC began to appear, the construction of which was directly performed by Svyatoslav Nikolayevich. There were 11 branches of ISTC Eye Microsurgery established across the country. Today, we have clinics abroad in Italy, Poland, Germany, Spain, Yemen, and even in the UAE.
Svyatoslav Nikolayevich devoted his whole life to medicine. His significant contribution to the development of eye microsurgery gave an impetus to the formation of modern medicine.
Apart from conducting successful operations, he wrote 523 scientific works, 7 monographs, made 234 inventions, and obtained 108 patents. 86 candidate theses and 25 doctoral theses were successfully defended under his supervision.
Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov was awarded the highest awards such as the M.V. Lomonosov Gold Medal and the M.I. Averbakh Prize of the Academy of Medical Sciences for scientific developments in the field of ophthalmosurgery. He received the State Award of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology; he also received Paleologos Award (USA), Pericles Award (Italy). Nowadays, ophthalmic surgeons of the IRTC Eye Microsurgery continue the work of Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov to this day.
Based on open sources.
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