On February 22, 2022, an online meeting of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences was held. Main topic: Development of astrophysical research in Russia: ground and space segment.

RAS Vice President Yuri Yurievich Balega will talk about the state and prospects for the development of astrophysical research in Russia

Space research is the topic of the report of the Deputy Chairman of the RAS Council on Space, Academician Lev Matveevich Zelyony.

RAS Corresponding Member Anatoly Alekseevich Petrukovich (SRI RAS) will talk about the heliogeophysics strategy.

Further:

On the activities of the RAS Council on Innovative Problems of Transport and Logistics. Academician Vladimir Ivanovich Kolesnikov.

On the expert commissions of the sections of the RAS branches in the fields and directions of science. RAS Corresponding Member Dmitry Valerevich Bisikalo.

On the approval of candidates for chief editors of academic journals. RAS Vice President Alexei Removich Khokhlov.

And other issues.

 

Scientific Russia conducted a live broadcast!

 

10.00 Broadcast begins

10.02 RAS Vice President Yuri Balega talks about the agenda for the meeting.

10.07 Yuri Balega makes a report on the state and prospects for the development of astrophysical research in Russia. 

10.09 Yuri Balega: “We live in the era of the greatest discoveries in the field of astrophysics.”

10.11 Yuri Balega talks about the most distant galaxies of the visible part of the universe.

10.13 The speaker talks about the detection of gravitational waves from new space sources.

10.15 Yuri Balega: “We know many new exoplanets. The first one was discovered in 1995.”

10.17 RAS Vice President: “There are about 500 billion stars in our galaxy. About 100 billion have planetary systems. Of these, 10 billion are Earth-like planetary systems.” 

10.19 Yuri Balega talks about a new discovery: the image of a supermassive black hole built by the Event Horizon Telescope.

10.21 The speaker talks about modern tools that make it possible to make space discoveries. Among them are giant telescopes.

10.25 Yuri Balega: “Russian scientists have made a huge contribution to the development of astrophysics. The contribution of Russia and Soviet scientists is enormous.”

10.27 RAS Vice President talks about the expanding Universe of A. Friedman, Sakharov oscillations, and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect.

10.30 Yuri Balega on V. A. Ambartsumyan: “He was the first to say that stars are born in our era.” 

10.31 The speaker explains the Shakura-Sunyaev disk accretion theory and notes: “This is the most cited article in the world in the field of theoretical astrophysics.”

10.33 Yuri Balega talks about the inflation of the early universe.

10.35 Speaker: “There are 1,500 astronomers in our country, 5 specialized observatories, 10 RAS institutions are engaged in astronomical research, about 12 universities have institutes or departments of astronomy.”

10.36 Yuri Balega talks about Russian optical and radio telescopes.

Optical telescopes of Russia

The total area of mirrors is 42 sq. m. or 2% of the total area in the world. After 5 years it will be less than 0.5%.

Yuri Balega talks about Russian optical telescopes.

Yuri Balega talks about Russian optical telescopes.

Screenshot of a live stream

10.38 Speaker on priority tasks in the field of astrophysics: “This is, first of all, the early universe, that is, the most distant objects.”

10.40 One of the main tasks of the current decade is to join the European Southern Observatory (ESO).

The main tasks of the current decade 1. Solving the problem of membership or partnership with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 2. Development of astronomical infrastructure for research in the mm-wave band 3. Creation of a 4th class optical telescope with a wide field of view based on the capabilities of the Russian optical and mechanical industry 4. Commissioning of the objects of the 1st stage of the heliogeophysical complex (optical instruments, radiogeliograph, optical telescope-coronograph – transition project of the 2nd stage) for research of the Sun and solar-terrestrial relations 1. Development of the instrumental base of neutrino astronomy – Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Telescope 1. Implementation of the lunar exploration program by spacecraft 2. Participation in the implementation of the international EXOMARS program3. Launch and commissioning of the Spektr-UV ultraviolet space telescope 4. Development of a space program for the exploration of Venus5. The final stage of preparation of the MILLIMETRON space mission

The main tasks of the current decade 

1. Solving the problem of membership or partnership with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 

2. Development of astronomical infrastructure for research in the mm-wave band 

3. Creation of a 4th class optical telescope with a wide field of view based on the capabilities of the Russian optical and mechanical industry 

4. Commissioning of the objects of the 1st stage of the heliogeophysical complex (optical instruments, radiogeliograph, optical telescope-coronograph – transition project of the 2nd stage) for research of the Sun and solar-terrestrial relations 

1. Development of the instrumental base of neutrino astronomy – Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Telescope 

1. Implementation of the lunar exploration program by spacecraft 

2. Participation in the implementation of the international EXOMARS program

3. Launch and commissioning of the Spektr-UV ultraviolet space telescope 

4. Development of a space program for the exploration of Venus

5. The final stage of preparation of the MILLIMETRON space mission

Screenshot of a live stream during Yuri Balega’s speech

10.42 Deputy Chairman of the RAS Council on Space, Academician Lev Matveevich Zelyony delivers his report.

10.45 Lev Zelyony: “Space research in Russia is mainly carried out within the framework of the Federal Space Program.”

10.47 The Speaker talks about the difficulties with the financing of fundamental space research, which left many projects postponed.

10.50 Lev Zelyony: “The astrophysical program in our country is being carried out very decently.”

10.51 The first Russian spacecraft of the Spektr series was launched in 2011 and operated for 8 years.

10.52 “We are preparing for the launch of Spektr-UV; at the end of the decade, we hope the fourth Spektr will be launched – this is a complex and interesting project.”

10.55 The speaker talks about the first survey of the sky by the eROSITA telescope.

10.57 Spektr-UV is the main “window” to the universe after 2025.

10.58 “The UV range is a unique source of astrophysical information. A lot of additional information can be obtained through exoplanet research.”

11.00 Lev Zelyony talks about the directions and methods of laboratory astrophysical experiments.

11.01 “In Russia, a significant place has always been occupied by the program of biomedical research. … Our scientists are among the leaders in world science.”

11.04 “EXOMARS – the main project of the decade.” The speaker talks about the scientific tasks of the equipment complex.

11.06 “It will be difficult for Russia to explore space in isolation.”

11.07 The speaker talks about the reserves of water ice.

11.09 “It is necessary to master international cooperation.”

Federal Space Program 2016-2025Space communicationsRemote sensing of the EarthFundamental space research ~ 100 billionManned flightsMeans of withdrawalManagement tools, information transmissionPromising products, technologies, researchTotal ~ 1500 billion

Federal Space Program 2016-2025

Space communications

Remote sensing of the Earth

Fundamental space research ~ 100 billion

Manned flights

Means of withdrawal

Management tools, information transmission

Promising products, technologies, research

Total ~ 1500 billion

Federal Space Program

Screenshot of a live stream during Lev Zelyony’s speech

11.10 Anatoly Petrukovich, Director of the SRI of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RAS Corresponding Member, delivers his report.

11.11 The speaker talks about the applied element in heliogeophysics.

11.12 “The applied importance of space sciences should be emphasized.”

11.14 “The modern history of Russian heliophysics began in 1957 with the International Heliophysical Year.”

11.15 Anatoly Petrukovich talks about Russian scientific space projects in heliophysics and modern achievements.

11.17 “It is necessary to develop a heliophysics strategy.”

11.19 “The result of the strategy, in addition to scientific and applied achievements, should be a single complex of space and ground-based observation facilities.”

11.21 “The Arctic is Russia’s priority zone. This is the place where the effects of space weather are most pronounced.”

11.22 “Heliophysical research and monitoring is a complex and resource-intensive direction.”

11.24 Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Igor Zinchenko delivers his report.

11.26 The speaker talks about the tasks of millimeter and submillimeter astronomy.

11.28 “Studies of the spectrum of interstellar clouds are of great interest, we’re actively engaged in this now.”

11.29 “The study of star formation processes is one of the main tasks of millimeter astronomy.”

11.31 “One of the outstanding achievements of recent times is obtaining an image of the “shadow” of a supermassive black hole in the M87 galaxy.

11.32 Igor Zinchenko talks about the Large Millimeter Telescope in Mexico.

11.34 There are several scientific groups in Russia conducting astrophysical research on short millimeter and submillimeter waves.

ConclusionsMillimeter and submillimeter astronomy are the most important and often unique sources of information for solving many topical astrophysical problemsCurrently, Russia has no competitive radio telescopes for waves of λ < 3 mm. At the same time, there is a good foundation in conducting scientific research and developing receiving equipment.Ground-based and space-based instruments complement each other. There are no sites in Russia comparable in terms of astroclimate on mm/sub-mm waves with the best places on Earth in this sense. At the same time, there are sites where occasional observations on waves up to 0.8 mm and possibly shorter are possible.  The creation of at least one submillimeter telescope with a diameter of 15-20 m would significantly increase the level of astrophysical research conducted in the country and make it possible to join international projects (the Event Horizon Telescope).The completion of the RT-70 construction on the Suffa plateau, when the planned surface accuracy characteristics are achieved, will allow us to reach the forefront in this area.

Conclusions

Millimeter and submillimeter astronomy are the most important and often unique sources of information for solving many topical astrophysical problems

Currently, Russia has no competitive radio telescopes for waves of λ < 3 mm. At the same time, there is a good foundation in conducting scientific research and developing receiving equipment.

Ground-based and space-based instruments complement each other. 

There are no sites in Russia comparable in terms of astroclimate on mm/sub-mm waves with the best places on Earth in this sense. At the same time, there are sites where occasional observations on waves up to 0.8 mm and possibly shorter are possible.  

The creation of at least one submillimeter telescope with a diameter of 15-20 m would significantly increase the level of astrophysical research conducted in the country and make it possible to join international projects (the Event Horizon Telescope).

The completion of the RT-70 construction on the Suffa plateau, when the planned surface accuracy characteristics are achieved, will allow us to reach the forefront in this area.

Screenshot of a live stream during Igor Zinchenko’s speech

11.36 RAS Corresponding Member Sergey Troitsky delivers his report.

11.37 Sergey Troitsky talks about neutrino astronomy.

11.38 “Astrophysical neutrinos have very different energies.”

11.39 “Registration methods in the case of neutrinos are extremely complex and non-trivial, … since it is very difficult to register, … but this is a plus from the point of view of astronomy because neutrinos bring information from inaccessible stars, for example, the bowels of stars.”

11.41 The speaker talks about the methods of studying solar neutrinos.

11.43 “Neutrino sources are unknown.”

11.45 “Due to the large number of neutrinos being born on Earth or in its atmosphere, the isolation of events from astrophysical sources in itself is a serious problem.”

11.47 “Neutrino telescopes are not desktop equipment, they are megascience class installations.”

Conclusion: neutrino telescopes are megascience class installationsBaikal GVDDevelopment of a new generation high-energy neutrino telescopePioneer works in the USSR and Russia – a unique infrastructure Modern world-class resultsAdequate material and human resources are needed to maintain a leading positionBaikal-GVDBaksan Large Underground Scintillation Telescope (project)

Conclusion: neutrino telescopes are megascience class installations

Baikal GVD

Development of a new generation high-energy neutrino telescope

Pioneer works in the USSR and Russia – a unique infrastructure 

Modern world-class results

Adequate material and human resources are needed to maintain a leading position

Baikal-GVD

Baksan Large Underground Scintillation Telescope (project)

 

Screenshot of a live stream during Sergey Troitsky’s speech

11.49 Konstantin Postnov, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, delivers his report.

11.51 The speaker talks about the first successful detection of sources by EM and gravitational-wave channel.

11.53 “Training of highly qualified specialists in interdisciplinary fields of astronomy and space research is required.”

11.55 Konstantin Postnov talks about the problems of astronomical education and improving the level of training of specialists.

11.56 “MSU continues the university satellite program.”

11.58 Head of the High Energy Astrophysics Laboratory of the Russian Academy of Sciences Andrey Bykov.

11.59 “Experiments on gamma-ray astronomy are actively being developed in Russia.”

12.00 “Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe.”

12.02 “The purpose of the work at the Institute of Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the universities of Saint Petersburg is the modeling of physical processes in relativistic transients.”

12.05 Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Vyacheslav Vdovin delivers his report.

12.06 The speaker talks about the research of the microwave astroclimate.

12.08 “There is not a single instrument working on short millimeters and submilimeters in Russia today,” it is necessary to “find resources to correct this glaring misunderstanding.”

12.10 Yuri Balega: “Let’s consider our discussion over.” The participants proceed to discuss comments on the draft resolution.

12.12 Academician Valery Rubakov: “I have a proposal to supplement the ruling part with a clause on neutrino astronomy; namely, to consider it necessary to develop neutrino astronomy in Russia, including within the framework of international cooperation.”

12.15 Academician Lev Zelyony: “If the preparation of students in astronomy lags behind, there will be no good students of specialized universities. … I would suggest strengthening the school curriculum in astronomy.”

12.17 Yuri Balega: “If there are no objections, we believe that the decision of the Presidium has been made on the first issue. … The next issue is about the activities of the Russian Academy of Sciences on innovative problems of transport and logistics.”

12.19 Academician Vladimir Kolesnikov.

12.22 “We are taking the initiative to create a new section – Technogenic Safety and Ecology of Transport.”

12.25 Yuri Balega: “If there are no objections, we consider the draft resolution adopted.”

12.27 Dmitry Bisikalo, RAS Corresponding Member.

12.28 Dmitry Bisikalo talks about the expert commissions of the sections of the branches of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the fields and directions of science.

12.32 Alexei Khokhlov, Vice President of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 

12.33 Alexei Khokhlov talks about the approval of candidates for chief editors of academic journals.

12.38 The closed part of the meeting begins.

 

The broadcast is over, thank you for being with us!